Friday, March 20, 2020

The Banality of Abstraction Western Philosophys Failure to Address the Moral Implications of the Holocaust

The Banality of Abstraction Western Philosophys Failure to Address the Moral Implications of the Holocaust Two of the 20th Century’s most prominent philosophers were Martin Heidegger and Hannah Arendt, who happened to live and work during the time period in which the atrocities of The Holocaust were committed. In addition to a strong mutually beneficial intellectual relationship, the two of them had a romantic affair.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The ‘Banality’ of Abstraction: Western Philosophy’s Failure to Address the Moral Implications of the Holocaust specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fact that he was a German and she was a Jew makes their story all the more interesting. Why would a man who loved a Jewish woman be a strong supporter of German politics during the Holocaust? Why would Arendt forgive him? Can Heideggerian philosophy account for the catastrophic crimes committed against the Jewish race? What good are philosophic ideals if they do not address morality in everyday life? In t his essay, I attempt to address some of these questions. Additionally, I would like to address the relationship of Arendt and Heidegger in the context of The Holocaust, and the effect that it had upon their philosophical works. Also, I attempt to prove that Heidegger’s political failings, and a refusal to admit any wrongdoing on the part of the German government, undermine his philosophical credibility, while Arendt’s public endorsement of him and his ideals weakens her credibility as a voice of the Jewish people. Philosophy is the study of and the admiration for wisdom itself. It comes from the Greek words â€Å"philos,† meaning love and â€Å"sophia,† which means wisdom. After his mentor Husserl, Heidegger was a major proponent of â€Å"phenomenology,† the philosophic study of structures of consciousness- sort of a detailed look at what the process of thinking is itself, and how philosophies are created. In 1923 Heidegger took a position at Marbu rg University, working as an associate professor. He continued to work in phenomenology and also lectured on Aristotle. During this time period, he worked on his treatise, Being and Time, which was ultimately seen as a major philosophical work. Partially due to this accomplishment, Heidegger was awarded the position of Philosophic Chair in 1928 at Freiberg University. With Hitler’s rise to power, Heidegger’s life entered a more controversial stage, referred to as â€Å"the turn.† Though he had been rather apolitical prior to the 1930’s, the increasing demands of university hierarchy necessitated a certain degree of political involvement. He was elected rector of Freiburg University in 1933, and soon after joined the NSDAP party. His infamous rector’s address from that post is often seen as evidence of Nazi support, though the movement is not specifically mentioned. However, actions speak louder than words, and during his rectorship, Heidegger willi ngly transformed the university into the National-Socialist mold, expelling Jewish academics, and not even objecting to the firing of his previous mentor Husserl.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps surprisingly, a year later Heidegger resigned from the post, and expressed some covert criticism of Nazi ideology, engendering the surveillance of The Gestapo, and eventually sent to dig trenches. Heidegger’s ambiguous relationship with the Nazi party has sparked a great deal of criticism, and continues to this day. Books like The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger by Pierre Bourdieu, Heidegger and the Jews by Jean-Franà §ois Lyotard, and The German Genius: Europes Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century by Peter Watson question whether Heidegger’s philosophy should be considered valid in light of his political sympat hies. He was considered a great ideologist and was banned from teaching at the same time. Even in his own time, Heidegger’s loyalties were questioned. On the one hand, his actions garnered the suspicions of the Gestapo and were anti-government enough to get him a post digging trenches. On the other hand, because at one point he’d been an openly anti-Semitic rector, he was banned from teaching until 1949. The ban was lifted in part due to Hannah Arendt’s willingness to vouch for him (Rosenbaum), interesting in its own right. Still, he continued to write until his death, with increasingly obscure texts. In 1924 Hannah Arendt enrolled as a student at Marlburg University to study philosophy, and took classes with Martin Heidegger a year later. The contradictory nature of their relationship encapsulates the cognitive dissonance between the ideals of the National Socialist Movement and its reality. Though a brilliant philosopher, Heidegger as a man failed to address t he moral implications of the Holocaust, and as a result lost the respect of his peers, students, and by extension, Western philosophy as a whole suffered. He was the most prominent philosopher of his time, gaining near-celebrity status, but he was a contradictory man. He espoused virtue, yet cheated on his wife. He loved Hannah Arendt for her mind, yet made her feel as though she must stifle her intelligence in his presence so as not to threaten his egoistic intelligence. He cared deeply for a Jewish woman, and his best teacher was a Jewish man, Edmond Husserl, yet he upon becoming rector of The University of Freiburg, he banned Jewish intellectuals from the establishment. The relationship between Heidegger and Arendt can be seen as a metaphor for the arc of philosophy as a whole during the time period in which they lived.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The ‘Banality’ of Abstraction: Western Philosophy’s Failure to Address the Moral Imp lications of the Holocaust specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More First, Heidegger alone was prominent, garnering fame through books like Being and Time (1927) and The Task of Thinking (1964) and teaching notable courses that gained him fame and recognition uncommon for a philosopher. At this time, philosophy was a mainstay in German society, something upon which people could rely at a time when government wasn’t fulfilling the needs of its people. Cultural zeitgeist- a return to nature- a metaphysical observation of details and thoughts and principles, not the rigidity of prior ideas introduced by Nietzsche, the key notable feature of which was the natural approach that was later applied to all fields of science and industry as well as education and politics. Then, Arendt entered the picture, representative the increasing presence of women at the university level, and all for which that stood- she was said to have brought a conscience to t he world of philosophy, weighing the grand ideas of her time against private principles of good and evil, applying them to reality. With the change in government, everything shifted. Arendt was interned, then escaped to America,- excised from academic society as all Jews and most women of the time were. Heidegger gained prominence during this same time period, delivering a rectorial address promoting the Nazi Socialist Movement based on the ideas that development of a man and technological progress should be simultaneous and be carried out highlighting the triumph of a man over technology though focusing on the importance of a symbiosis between a man and technology. As the Holocaust dragged on, and it became increasingly clear that it was not a movement of ideals but one of hatred and destruction, the banished point of view of Hannah Arendt became the mainstay in public opinion. With her publication years later of Eichmann in Jerusalem: a Report on the Banality of Evil (2006), she c aptured the thought of the time, answering for herself questions full of emotional coloring and philosophical ideas of why people make others suffer through the most sophisticated and cruel crimes against the humankind (Avineri). However, the answers were nothing without actions but she could do nothing physically to prevent those crimes and humiliation, destruction and devastation.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, we see the difficult but grand triumph of forgiveness over ignorance and intolerance. Though Heidegger never apologized for his political actions, and never even explained the reasoning behind why he acted in the way that he did, Arendt forgave him. The two reconnected with a tenuous academic friendship, mostly in the form of letters that contained a touch of the inspired romance the two had once known. Though in action they were opposites, the gentle Jew and the fox-like Gentile, they were perfect academic counterparts- inspiring one another with lofty ideas, and praising each other’s attempts for the sake of mutual growth. The concept of Heidegger being a fox is discussed closely by Arendt in her personal diary Denktagebuch of 1953 where she kept interesting thoughts about people, the situation, and some notes from notable books she liked or disliked (Forrest 6). Arendt even took the step of helping Heidegger to regain his reputation. The world was skeptical of Ger man intellectuals after the war. Hadn’t their ideas made a direct path to the dogma that caused the Holocaust? Arendt argued that this was not so; He did his duty; he not only obeyed orders, he also obeyed the law (Arendt, Eichmann 135). She helped him to regain his standing, and for the most part forgave him, though in private she still expressed sorrow and a bit of skepticism about his moral conduct (Forrest 6). This was another way the world reflected her views. Germans tenuously rebuilt their reputations, but many retained private resentments, and the world at large still remembers them as the society in which Nazism could thrive. The philosophical environment in Germany was favorable for development of ideologies and different concepts that could be used to encourage people for changes and increase their moral spirits. The political ideology was created in the same time as the philosophical one though people did not recognize the applicability of ideas to the political l ife of the country and, as it later turned out, most part of the world. As such, it is questionable whether the ideology itself was negative or its implementation in practice was ineffective and perverted. The political ontology of Martin Heidegger interpreted by Pierre Bourdieu referencing youth Zeitgeist suggests that it was based on the natural approach and its popularity for cultural use. In addition, Heidegger’s â€Å"turn† and his belief in â€Å"inner truth and greatness of the movement- namely the encounter between global technology and the modern man† (Bourdieu 9) can be considered decisive for shaping his views and people’s perception of his ideas referring to the Nazi ideology and him as an integral part of it. The Holocaust’s effect on philosophy was great because any event that takes place in the world and raises a great number of different views that are often opposing each other makes the world of philosophy revive leading to strong criticism or support to the event or people who provoked it. As such, philosophical ideas by Nietzsche that were provoked by the Holocaust can be used for a more thorough analysis of interactions in the society in that period so that people stopped talking about the dissemination of ideas. If people do not agree with the Nazi philosophy and are not ready to support the movement, why should they act in a strongly negative and destructing manner. Some of Nietzsche’s famous quotes about the Holocaust include the following: â€Å"Under conditions of peace the warlike man attacks himself† and â€Å"The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who think alike than those who think differently.† ‘Holocaust Theology’ can be regarded as an individual strain of thought because it explained the desire of people to dominate and their high level of patriotic views while any patriotism when received in high doses can be harmf ul and leading to fascist views. At the same time, Martin Heidegger who was considered one of the prominent philosophers of the time supported the Nazi ideology and Adolf Hitler as the ideological leader of this discriminating movement full of hatred and humiliation towards other people and nations. Heidegger was known for criticizing the academic approach to the exploration of the concept of being. As suggested by Loving, â€Å"A stereotypical criticism of much of traditional academia is that it only studies ‘dead white males’† (97). However, he also supported the Nazi ideology which made him a rather controversial person for the period right after the war and till the current moment because people cannot understand how such an educated and prominent philosopher could fail to understand the destructing nature of fascism. This can be explained through the notes in Hannah Arendt’s diary where she uses an allegory of a fox to analyze the behavior of Heidegge r and his inability to identify the â€Å"difference between a trap and a non-trap† (Forrest 6). As noted by Habermas and McCumber, â€Å"Heidegger’s work has long since detached itself from his person† making him a great philosopher who supports the Nazi though. Arendt was a prominent political theorist though she was often referred to as a philosopher. The relationships between Arendt and Heidegger were unclear for the entire world as they supported each other in all difficulties and troubles. Honan claims that â€Å"Arendt, whose fiery reproach had extended to European Jews whom she said had ‘collaborated’ with the Nazis in their own destruction, did almost everything she could to whitewash the unrepentant Heidegger†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (26). Another characteristic of their relations by Honan suggests that they were two strong persons who could not reach the compromise in a way we all got used to and their struggle continued: The book [Hannah Arendt/Ma rtin Heidegger by Elzbieta Ettinger] shows that Arendt was so arrogant that she thought she alone could decide who should be forgiven and who should not, said Elie Wiesel, the Nobel laureate who has written of his experiences in the Auschwitz death camp. Im not so sure her moral stature will remain intact. The effect of the relationship between Martin Heidegger and Hannah Arendt was evident in their work as she tried in all possible ways to make him look less Nazi-supporting than he was at the same time opposing his views. Heidegger was brilliant in terms of his ideas, concepts, and other philosophical issues he created and introduced in his works though he was negatively perceived due to being a supporter of Hitler. ‘The Banality of Evil’ in contrast with Arendt’s original phrase â€Å"radical evil† can be interpreted as her attempt to reconcile her view of Martin’s evil and make an accounting for it so that she can forgive herself for loving an ev il man. The lasting Impact of the works of Heidegger and Arendt is their books like Heidegger’s Being and Time which questioned the concept of being as it should be applied rather than it have been applied since Plato’s ideas introduced and Arendt’s books Eichmann in Jerusalem: a Report on the Banality of Evil where she tries to justify her affection for a man who commits evil and The Origins of Totalitarianism which can be considered one of the great political theories of all times. To conclude, the abstraction of philosophy renders it impotent- in the case of Heidegger, his refusal to allow his ideas to stand up to real-world examples makes them meaningless. Heidegger was considered weak because he could not decide which of the parties he wants to support. At the same time, he was strongly criticized by all activists of the time for his positive reaction to the Nazi ideology and antisemitism whereas the most active critic was Hannah Arendt who was also his maj or supporter because she tried to clean his reputation. She forgave him everything and reflected her justification for their relationships in her books and notes where she claimed that he was like a fox that could not identify the trap. Both the events of one’s life and the major relationships one has in one’s lifetime have a significant impact on intellectual work. Martin Heidegger’s abstraction of moral concepts sidesteps any real ethical judgments†¦ and Arendt’s public endorsement of him and his ideals weakens her credibility as a voice of the Jewish people. Arendt, Hannah, and Martin Heidegger. Letters, 1925-1975. Uncorrected Proof ed. Orlando: Harcourt, 2004. Print. Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: a Report on the Banality of Evil. New York, NY: Penguin, 2006. Print. Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 2nd Enlarged ed. Breinigsville, PA: Benediction Classics, 2009. Print. Avineri, Shlomo. Where Hannah Arendt Went Wrong. Haaret z Daily Newspaper. 2010. Web. Bourdieu, Pierre. The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1991. Print. Forrest, Rosanna. Hannah and Martin: Study Guide. Web. Habermas, Jurgen, and John McCumber. Work and Weltanschauung: The Heidegger Controversy from a German Perspective. Critical Inquiry 15.2 (1989): 431. Web. Heidegger, Martin. Basic Writings: from Being and Time (1927) to The Task of Thinking (1964). Comp. Krell David. Farrell. London: Harper Rowe, 1993. Print. Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Comp. Dennis J. Schmidt. Albany: State University of New York, 2010. Print. Honan, William H. Book on Philosophers Life Stirs Scholarly Debate Over Her Legacy. Editorial. New York Times 1995, Sunday ed.: 26. Web. Loving, Gregory David. The Forgotten: Implications of Lyotards Heidegger and The Jews: Issues of Race in Philosophical Discourse. Philosophical Studies in Education 39 (2008): 97-105. Web. Lyotard, Jean-Franà §ois. Heidegger a nd the Jews. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1990. Print. Rosenbaum, Ron. Troubling New Revelations about Arendt and Heidegger. By Ron Rosenbaum. Slate Magazine. 2009. Web. Watson, Peter. The German Genius: Europes Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century. New York: Harper, 2010. Print.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

The Reason Content Doesnt Get Results With Garrett Moon - CoSchedule

The Reason Content Doesnt Get Results With Garrett Moon Have you spent a ton of time on a piece of content, only for it to get no traction or traffic? Does it end up in the graveyard of the Internet? What about a piece of content that drives traffic, but not to conversions? These are huge problems for content marketers. Today, we’re talking to Garrett Moon, ’s co-founder and CEO. He will share content solutions and information from his new book, 10X Marketing Formula. Some of the highlights of the show include: Content marketing is not living up to the hype that it promised and not generating the results that were expected. Who’s who in content marketing have provided positive testimonials for Garrett’s book. One core reason why marketers are not getting results with their content is that it is not good or unique enough to stand out. Need to Create Competition-Free Content: As a marketer that is creating content, your content is in competition with other content. Find ways to differentiate yourself. What are your top 5 competitors doing for content marketing? If it looks like what you are doing, then do something different. When performed an assessment of its competitors, it noticed a similarity in length of posts, consistent use of imagery, and low usage of resources in posts. Find opportunities that move you away from the competition. Garrett shared a case study of Groove HQ. It had a regular content marketing blog that focused on useful things for professionals. There was moderate success, but it was not great. The company needed to do something different with it. So, it launched a brand new blog called, Groove’s Journey to 100K in Monthly Recurring Revenue. The company shared what worked and didn’t, and the blog experienced overnight success. You need to have an appetite for risk to really stand out, but risk is not the problem. It is failure. Marketing has become about the methods we use. However, if you’re constantly building your marketing on top of methods, you’re just copycating what everyone else is doing. Take a risk and try something new. Stick with the plan, even if it doesn’t work. Content Core: What does your audience want to read about? What interests them enough to click on a link? Clicks don’t necessarily equal value and results. Don’t fall into that trap! Find an overlap between the topics you need to cover for your audience of existing and potential customers and the content you need to produce as a company. It’s about what your audience cares about and what value as a business you provide. What is the customer’s problem that made them hire to solve? How do you turn solving their problem into content? Marketing Projects: Allows customers to manage multi-media marketing campaigns. helps customers solve complex problems by offering free, simple tools. If you help your audience be successful without you, they’ll be dying to be successful with you! The best way to get results with content is to talk to your customers. Powered by PodcastMotor Actionable Content Marketing powered by By AMP078: The Real Reason Your Content Doesn’t Get Results With Garrett Moon From 00:00/00:00 1x 100 > Download file Subscribe on iTunes Leave Review Share Links: 10X Marketing Formula Jay Baer Joe Pulizzi Blue Ocean Strategy Groove HQAMP on iTunes leave a review and send screenshot to podcast@.com If you liked today’s show, please subscribe on iTunes to The Actionable Content Marketing Podcast! The podcast is also available on SoundCloud, Stitcher, and Google Play. Quotes by Garrett: â€Å"Content marketing is just not always living up to the hype that was promised. It’s not always giving them the results that they feel they deserved.† â€Å"As a marketer and a content marketer that is creating content, we have to actually realize is that our content is now in competition with other content.† â€Å"Risk is all about failure, and I think you have to learn to sort of embrace failure and use it as a learning exercise and a way to improve what you are doing.†

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Global Perspective of a Nursing Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Global Perspective of a Nursing Theory - Essay Example ry by Selye as well as Lararus writing on coping and stress are all great inspirations, which influenced the birth of the theory of systems by Neuman. It was based on many assumptions, which include that every individual client’s system is distinct and unique. There exist very many stressors, which are universal while other universally known while others are still unknown. Particular interrelationships by variables in a client determine the level of defense that a patient enjoys from a particular line of defense. Environmental factors are major influences to the evolution of the lines of defense as described previously. Lines of resistance explain the uniqueness of individual clients capacity to challenge and take defense against the stressors. Primary prevention strategies define the possible or the actual risk factors that are associated to individual client condition. The secondary factors provides the practitioner with direction to address the outcome of a particular treat ment administered to a particular client in regard to stress. The tertiary level on the other hand explains reconstitution adjustive processes to be adopted for addressing the stress and factor causes. However, bottom line to the theory is that the client system is quite dynamic and involves constant exchange of energy between the client and the environment. A client system according to this theory is the depiction of the interplay of the internal and environmental factors as variables to individual person. Selection of a Nursing theory and reasons for selection The selection of this theory for discussion in this paper has been influenced by various factors. The theory has been in application in nursing discipline in the understanding that an individual client is a person as at the bottom line... This essay approves that the systems theory as developed and used by the theorist had basic conceptual framework in management of stress for the clients, which is associated for both internal and external factors. The internal factors are the inherent factors such as the disease conditions and as such, management of the stress resultant is best addressed from the perspective of treating the disease first. On the other hand, environmental factors such as would cause the diseases are blamed on causing the stress that is externally influenced. In this regard in addition, management of the stress by practicing nurses and the clients designing and application of lines of defense that span from appreciating these causative factors. This report makes a conclusion that theorist Betty Neuman is globally acknowledged as one of the most dynamic contributors to the nursing model based theories in the nineteenth century. She developed the conceptual framework through which the particular roles of nurses and the patients are defined concerning the management of stress. She derived her inspiration from various other works of philosophy, which had the inclination to understanding stress and the management. The client is depicted as a system, which comprises of psychological, physiological, social cultural, developmental as well as spiritual dimensions. In sum, the study reveals that Newman’s work in nursing has had great impact towards the universal discipline of nursing. Having great foundation in other theorists works, the theory of stress as developed by her have undergone great evolution over time and is most celebrated in changes notable in nursing research, education and curriculum development among other ar eas.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Impact of Labour Unrest for Business (Production) Essay

Impact of Labour Unrest for Business (Production) - Essay Example Labor unrests are generally organized and strike actions carried out by labor unions in the case of the failure of solving such labor disputes. The employees and the overall workforce alter the normal production routine process, thus impacting the shareholders of the production business; the key reason for these unrests is the workers articulating for the increase in wages and labor rights (Silver, 2003). The impacts of labor unrests on a production firm or a business can be discussed as follows. Lower Production levels Labor unrests have a significant impact on the businesses dealing with production, as they lead to lower production levels. Strikes by workers affect greatly the production levels, because most of the production businesses do not have production schedules where one day stock is taken as surplus. Thus labor unrests can lead to the drastic decrease in the production volumes, which can impact the key wholesalers and retailers negatively, as the business production is a c ountrywide supplier (Silver, 2003). Shift in consumer demand Labor in the production business causes shifts in the demand of consumers, notably in the case of strikes. Typically, most of the manufacturing companies keep a significant volume of inventory in their warehouses purposely, as a precaution against labor unrests, which can only represent not more than a month inventory. This production schedule approach ensures that companies continue with their normal production and supply operations for some time after the unrests, thus providing a period for solving the labor dispute without much effect on their business operations (Silver, 2003). In the case of the dispute taking long to be resolved, consumers may wait for the return of the normal operations or shift to the available competitors. Overlap impacts Labor unrests of higher degree of magnitude such as nationwide strike have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the related markets. Such labor unrests are characterized by work stoppage in the production manufacturing company, and this has a great impact on its major outlets and other stakeholders that have frequent transactions with the company. Labor unrests can lead to a standstill of operations in its markets. Companies operating as providers of complimentary services to the production company are the highly affected, because its services or commodities will loose it major market share due to the slowdown of operations at the production company’s plants. This situation may lead to these stakeholders’ decision to go to other markets and the suppliers’ decision to go to the market outlets (Silver, 2003). Loss of revenue and profits Labor unrests cause slowdown and, at times, standstill in the operations at the manufacturing plants. These standstills and slowdowns have an impact of reducing the volume of sales. Lower volume of sales translates into lower revenue realized from them, leading to lower profitability as compared with the period of labor stability (Silver, 2003). This impact is commonly expected to extend to the major outlets, as the level of supply will go down and the company is a nationwide distributor. In this case the company will go at a loss, since the overhead fixed cost will remain the same, straining the less realized revenue and the profits. Impact on employee performance An

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Effect of the Moon on Planet Earth

Effect of the Moon on Planet Earth Josh Chaplin â€Å"The Earth would be a very different place without the moon. Discuss†¦Ã¢â‚¬  It’s true that without the moon, the earth would be a less romantic place. Mythical werewolves would never have been conceived, nor would we have a calendar based on the concept of the lunar phases. It has undoubtedly influenced human culture over millennia, but can the same be said for our neighbouring celestial satellite in geological terms? A seemingly insignificant lump of rock in comparison, it can be hard to comprehend that the moon has had such potentially significant impacts on shaping the earth as it appears today. But as it seems, a chain of events were set in motion from the instant the moon was formed which have not only left us here perplexed by it, but have left us here in the first place. The bulk of the moon’s responsibility for impacting upon the planet lies with its gravitation and proximity to the earth. Such a scenario allows for it to have a profound influence on the tides of our oceans, which in turn serves to slow the earth’s rotation and hurl the moon further away from us. The gravitational attraction of the moon is also the stabilising factor in a celestial battle between the large bodies of the solar system to throw the planet’s axial obliquity off-balance. The very fact that the moon is here in the first place tells of how fortunate the impact that formed it was, because were it not for that humble collision over 4.5 billion years ago, life on earth would be vastly different today at the very least (and conceivably even absent at worst). Its presence has also stimulated the application of mathematics and induced superstition in generations of humans, whilst providing total solar eclipses which are a universally rare, defining aspect of earth. The regular monthly cycle of the lunar phases has also been linked to mating sequences, hunting rituals and even the menstrual cycle, which 51% of the earth’s human population will experience for a large quantity of their lives. On top of all of this, the moon has defined the scenery of the night sky along with the stars and reflected the sun’s light to dampen its pitch black darkness since time immemorial, achieving omnipresence in a multitude of modern media. â€Å"The earth would be a very different place without the moon†. It only seems prudent to commence with the earliest chronological appearance of the moon. The most widely accepted modern theory for its formation is centred around a hypothetical protoplanet by the name of Theia. It is proposed to have been around the size of Mars, and about 10% of the mass of the earth. [1] Isotope analysis of lunar rocks bought back from the Apollo mission tells us that Theia is hypothesised to have collided with the earth at 4.527  ± 0.010 billion years before present. [1] Earth as it was back then would have been wholly transformed by this impact, altering its composition and ultimately allowing it to become the planet it is today. This collision would have also produced a considerable amount of debris, which would have subsequently accreted to form the moon. [2] This is the only feasible model which explains why the moon finds itself in orbit with the earth; physics- based computerised reconstructions show that it would not have been possible to capture a pas sing-by moon with the gravitational field of the earth, nor would it have been possible to originate from ejection of material from the molten earth due to fission by centrifugal force. [3] Assuming that this hypothesis is correct, it is obvious that earth has been extensively altered because of the moon. For one, upon impact, material from the dense iron core of Theia would likely have sunk towards the core of earth due to gravity, whilst mantle material would likely have been accreted onto the surface of the early earth. [2] This is the reason for the characteristic inner layers of the earth today. The moon would have then formed from excess material from the impact coalescing in the surrounding vicinities of the early earth. Thus, the formation of the moon both added and took away material from the early earth, heavily influencing its very composition from as early as 4.537 Ga. [1], [2] Having considered that this moon-forming impact would have been a major source of much of the terrestrial iron found on earth today, the size of our iron-nickel core would have been directly affected by it. The earth’s mantle chemically differentiated in an event called the iron catastrophe, throughout the first 500 million years of the planet’s formation. Extremely large quantities of iron succumbed to gravity and sunk to form the core. The innermost part of the earth was thus comprised of conductive elements, an iron-nickel alloy, which became able to generate electrical currents whilst rotating due to the coriolis effect in interaction with convection in the mantle [8] (which originated in the first place from heat escaping from the core). As a result, the roughly dipolar magnetosphere was conceived, giving rise to the radioactive Van Allen Belts by trapping charged protons and electrons in concentric bands surrounding the planet. [8] Figure 1 above is a scaled repre sentation of the invisible magnetosphere and Van Allen belts surrounding the earth. Only discovered in 1958, the infamously ‘deadly’ belts have been unvoiced yet fundamental in the development of life on our planet. This is due to the particles’ ability to prevent horrific ionising radiation to reach the surface of the earth and effectively fry anything which ever endeavoured to exist on the surface. The magnetosphere itself would also have prevented any charged particles of solar wind from reaching the earth’s surface and causing similar damage. Amongst other variables, the strength of the earth’s magnetic field would be directly proportional to the size of the core according to dynamo theory, [8] and therefore we have the moon-forming impact to thank for a hospitable and agreeable planet. It’s therefore fair to say that without the moon coming into fruition, the earth may never have done either. There are more obvious ongoing effects of the moon on the earth today though, than there were back in the Hadean. It is fairly common knowledge that the moon has influence on the tides of our seas and oceans. Along with the sun, it produces the twice-daily rise and fall of the seas that boggled coastal dwellers for millennia prior to Newton’s formulation of the universal law of gravitation in 1687. Naturally, the gravitational attraction between two separate entities is inversely proportional to the distance between them. [4] Thus, whilst the sun may be roughly 400 times as large as the moon, it is (coincidentally) around 400 times further away than it, and so exerts less influence over the tides. [4] The area of the earth closest to the moon at any given point will see a protuberance of its oceans, as the water is attracted to the moon’s gravitational field. [4] Simultaneously on the opposite side of the earth furthest from the moon, the crust itself succumbs to the lunar gravitation and is, in effect, marginally subsided, producing an additional oceanic bulge. [4] Figure 2 (right ) illustrates and annotates this gravitational phenomenon, by ever-so-slightly exaggerating the potential bulge of the tides! However, depending on the topography of shoreline localities and nature of continental slopes around the globe, the fluctuation can vary wildly between low and high tides. [4] In extreme cases, this can affect the livelihoods of littoral inhabitants by dictating fishing schedules or putting their homes in danger, showing how the moon really is a foremost influence on making the earth the place it is. One such scenario is the extraordinary tidal range at the Bay of Funday in Eastern Canada, which can surpass 12 metres. [4] Circumstances like this can occur upon the arrival of ‘spring’ tides (from the German verb springen, ‘to leap’, not from the name of the season) whereby the sun and moon align, causing maximum attraction in their direction and thus amplifying the height of the tides. [4] Alas, the moon is a dictatorial authority on the tides of our oceans, and presumably has been since the oceans formed around 3.8 billion years ago. Swishing and swashing the oceans for eons of geological time has not passed by without its consequences however. The moon’s gravity has created the tides on the one hand, whilst the rotation of the earth has slightly offset the location of them on the other; the actual location of the peaked tidal bulge is slightly ahead of where it would logically be, at the closest point on the earth’s surface to the moon. [7] As a result, a surprisingly large amount of mass (the tidal protuberance of the oceans) is offset slightly from the closest locality on earth to the moon at that point in time, meaning that a certain quantity of the gravitational pull is no longer directly between the earth and moon, but at a 90 ° angle to it. [7] Thus, torque is effectively created between the two planetary bodies, [7] and is often called ‘tidal friction,’ ‘tidal acceleration’ or ‘tidal braking’. This means that the presence of the moon causes our charac teristic 24 hour days to lengthen by around 2.3 milliseconds every century. [7] Taking Newton’s third law of equal and opposite reactions into account, the earth is also pushing the moon away by 3.82 ±0.007 cm per year as a result of this ‘torque’. [7] Would all of this really mean though that without the moon, the earth would be a very different place? Extrapolating back in time to 4 billion years ago tells us that the moon was some 15,000 km closer. Tidal forces would have been gargantuan, with hypothesised constant tsunami waves ravishing the planet. Perhaps, this would not only have served to shape the landscape by causing erosion, but it would have also dictated when proportions of the land surface would have been settled enough for life to flourish. In addition, the day would have been much shorter, with the year being around 400 days long due to the faster rotation of the earth. Looking ahead to the future, the earth may very well slow until it reaches t he same rotational speed as the moon, and then the exact same visage of the moon will always face the earth as in the Pluto-Charon arrangement on the outskirts of our solar system. [7] This demonstrates how that over short periods of time, the consequences of the moon’s presence on the earth are subtle, nigh negligible, but are not to be taken lightly in the (very) long run. Moving on from the tides of the planet, there is another reason in addition to the earlier-discussed Van Allen belts that the moon may well be the reason that life exists on earth as it does today. The axial tilt of the earth (also referred to as obliquity, a Milankovich cycle) is currently measured at 23.4 ° (and decreasing) between the earth’s rotational axis and the perpendicular to its orbital plane. [5] Whilst all sizeable bodies in our solar system (such as the sun and the gas giants) have an effect on this angle of tilt, the much closer proximity of the moon means that it is the most regulatory factor in this cosmic gravitational tug-of-war. [5] Figure 3 (left) shows the range between the earth’s minimum and maximum axial tilt values, for which we have the moon to thank for keeping the planet within those parameters. Without such a valuable sidekick, the tilt of a planetary body could incline wildly. In fact, there is evidence that Mars has tilted by up to 60 ° in the past, [5] presumably no thanks to the inferior gravitation of Phobos and Deimos in comparison to our moon. In a more horrific circumstance, computer models have liberated the earth of the moon’s gravitational effects and shown that it could tip by as much as 85 °, essentially interchanging the locations of the equator and the poles! [5] The would-be climatic consequences of such an event are naturally rather sketchy, but it is safe to presume that life on land would have been hard-pushed to adapt and may very well have been diminished. [5] Extrapolating from this, perhaps life on earth would be completely different, with organisms such as thermophiles at oceanic ridges, migratory birds and aquatic beings flourishing in the absence of land-dwelling mammals. It’s hard to imagine that the moon has the potential to command the diversity of the species in existence on the planet, and that it has been maintaining our climate and giving us our seasons, all due to the fact that it is steadying our axial tilt. This is the reason why the moon is such a prominent part of the ‘Rare Earth’ hypothesis, which explains how there are many different astrological criteria which must come together in order for a planet to prospectively bear life; [6] in other words, we owe our existence to the moon. Regardless of our location in the galactic habitable zone, our rocky terrain (not gaseous) and the fortune to have evolved beyond microbial life, the arrival of the moon was the ultimate (and perhaps the flukiest) stroke of luck to have ever graced the planet from a human perspective. [6] In conclusion, it’s obvious to draw from these analyses that the earth simply wouldn’t be the same without the moon, not only from a geological perspective, but from every perspective conceivable when its role in putting us here in the first place is considered. The moon is receding from our planet, and only time will tell if earth will succumb to life without it. References [1] Wieczorek, M. et al. (2006)The constitution and structure of the lunar interior Pages 322-323 [2] Canup, R.M. (2004) Simulations of a late lunar-forming impactIcarus Issue 168, Pages 433–436, 453-456 [3] Stroud, R. (2009)â€Å"The Book of the Moon† Pages24–31 [4] Grotzinger, J. Jordan, T. (2010) â€Å"Understanding Earth† Sixth Edition, Pages 540-541 [5] Dartnell, L. (2007) â€Å"Life in the Universe, a Beginners Guide† Pages 69-70 [6] Ward, P.D. Brownlee, D. (2000) â€Å"Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe† Pages 191, 194 200 [7] Chao, B.F. Ray, R.D. (1998) â€Å"Oceanic tidal angular momentum and Earths rotation variations† Page 403 [8] Glatzmaier, G.A. Roberts, P. H. (1995) A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversalNature Issue377Pages 203–209 Image References Figure 1 – http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/gallery/Magnetosphere.html Figure 2 – http://science.howstuffworks.com/moon4.htm Figure 3 – http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Milankovitch/milankovitch_2.php 1

Friday, January 17, 2020

The Kiss: a Descriptive Essay

Musee Rodin described Auguste Rodin as the most remarkable sculptor in his time, where he seemingly made flesh out of marble. He was born in Paris on November 12, 1884 and known for creating â€Å"The Age of Bronze†, †The Gates of Hell†, â€Å"The Burghers of Calais†, â€Å"The Thinker†, â€Å"The Kiss† and many other more (biography. com). According to his biography, Rodin created â€Å"The Gates of Hell† as a commissioned entrance piece for a â€Å"never built† planned museum; it featured the sculpted figures of â€Å"The Thinker† (1880) and â€Å"The Kiss† (1886). The Kiss† was originally part of the Gates of Hell inspired by a literature source; however, it was removed due to the positive state of eroticism and iconic image of love (artble. com). Rodin died on November 17, 1917 in Meudon, France and was still working on â€Å"The Gates of Hell† (biography. com) The intimate characterizations of the l overs in Rodin’s work were originally made out of stone and were reproduced in marble and bronze (artble. com). It gave emphasis to size standing 5’ 11 ? (Frank 52), giving the impression of a more realistic view for the viewers; figures positioned in a way that he carved the arms around each other and intricately highlighting his theme of the lovers’ first kiss. The figures being made out of stone, Rodin made the figures skin- smooth, in contrast of the roughness of the stone they were sitting on. Although, observing his work from a photograph, different angled pictures of Rodin’s work undeniably still relayed the concept and emotion the first time you see the sculpture.Rodin’s intricate design demonstrated his skill as an artist; he depicted the emotional and symbolic content of having that first kiss. Rodin carved the figures’ intimate embrace and passionate kiss that displayed their true love, despite the tragedy that befell on them; it was ingeniously molded that the emotion involved was felt by the audience. Rodin’s expectations for the public’s reaction as he captured the moment that made his work marvelous; he created a masterpiece that was romantic and sensual, although the figures were nude it was never sexually concentrated (artble. om). The Kiss’s, also known as the Francesca da Rimini, main inspiration was based on the story from Dante’s Divine Comedy, which depicted the forbidden love of Paolo Malatesta to his sister-in-law Francesca da Rimini, who had an affair 13th century Italy. When Francesca’s husband, Giovanni, caught them as they were having their first kiss, he swiftly stabbed the sinful lovers that led to their tragic death. The couple was true to life figures that Dante met in his lifetime (artble. com; musee-rodin. r). REFERENCE: â€Å"Auguste Rodin. † Bio. The Biography Channel website. n. d. Web. 10 Feb 2013. â€Å"The Kiss. † Artble. n. p. n. d. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. â€Å"The Kiss. † Musee Rodin. Musee Rodin, n. d. Web. 09 Feb. 2013. < http://www. musee-rodin. fr/en/collections/sculptures/kiss > Frank, Patrick. Preble’s Artforms. 10th ed. New Jersey: Pearson, 2011. 52. Print

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Civil War Of 1861 - 952 Words

The Civil War took place in 1861 and it lasted up until 1865. It was a war between the United States or, The Union army rather, and eleven deep rooted southern states known as the Confederacy. The Civil War occurred mainly as a direct response to slavery. The South preferred to keep slavery and the North simply wanted to preserve the Union. However, there were many other incidents that occurred and there were different battles that caused the Civil War to have its end results. Those battles will be addressed in the following paragraphs. The very first battle took place in 1861. It was known as both The Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Manassas. The Union army, led by General Irvin Manassas, was slightly larger than the Confederate army, led by P.G.T. Beauregard. It took place in northern Virginia when the Union army marched to Manassas in attempt to attack the Confederates. The attack appeared to be successful, but the Confederates managed to survive. They later went on to counte rattack the Union and McDowell and his army were forced to retreat back to Washington. This battle was very detrimental and overwhelming for the Union army, and left them in a state of disbelief. However, in 1861 the Union were still able to make substantial progress. They were eventually able to proclaim western Virginia a new renowned state admitted as West Virginia in 1863. Shortly after the Battle of Bull Run, the war took a turn in favor of the Union. A Union regiment directed by DavidShow MoreRelatedThe Civil War ( 1861-1865 )1154 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War (1861-1865) is no doubt one of the most defining moments in U.S. history. Tensions between the North and the South reached a critical point in 1860 when the Southern states began to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. The four years that ensued from the Battle of Fort Sumter claimed more than 600,000 lives, marking the Civil War the bloodiest battles in American history. Following the Union’s victory, the seceded states had to be readmitted into the UnionRead MoreThe American Civil War Of 18611340 Words   |  6 Pages    The American Civil War of 1861 to 1865 was a battle between the Union Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, and the Confederacy, led by Jefferson Davis and was described as ‘cruelty’ by one William Tecumseh Sherman. It can be argued whether slavery was the real root cause of the carnage that caused the loss of over 620,000 military personnel and a speculated 400,000 who were captured or deemed missing. The Unionist historian George Bancroft blamed slavery ‘the uprising of the irresistible spirit ofRead MoreThe American Civil War ( 1861-65 )1961 Words   |  8 PagesAngelena Barclay HIS 110 11/24/14 The American Civil War (1861-65) was one of the most destructive wars in American history. A total of 625,000 lives were lost (J. McPherson), and many of the men who fought were volunteers . There were many factors that led men to volunteer for military service, such as honor and dedication to their country, but some men were not prepared for the hardships that they would face while in the line of duty. Being on the battlefield was traumatizing for many soldiersRead MoreThe Civil War And The Antebellum Years From 1845-1861940 Words   |  4 PagesMany events in the United States helped form the country today. One of the more prominent events was the Civil War and the antebellum years from 1845-1861. Due to expansion in the West, discussions began about how the state was going to join the Union and later the issue of slavery was introduced. Many Northern states sought to halt the spread of slavery into the new territories while Southern states wanted to expand slavery. These dispute s lead to bloodshed as the South began to feel that theirRead MoreThe American Civil War Exploded In 1861 After Several Decades1092 Words   |  5 PagesAmerican Civil War exploded in 1861 after several decades of tension boiling between the southern and northern states over contagious disputes including slavery, westward expansion and the federal authority over the states’ rights. The presidential election of 1860 and the triumph of Republican Abraham Lincoln, who was an ardent supporter of abolition led to the secession of seven southern states that formed the Confederate States of America. The other four states joined after the civil war had kickedRead MoreThe Civil War, Lasting From 1861-1865, Consisted Of Numerous1156 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War, lasting from 1861-1865, consisted of numerous bloody battles, military involvements and other historically significant events. There were over ten thousand events, fifty of them being major.. 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While it was still important to many in the North, the main war aim of the Union side was to preserve the Union and make sure it remained intact. As the war dragged on and more soldiers died on both sides, Lincoln realized he would need to entirely cripple the already weak Confederate economy, and he did this by making the Emancip ation Proclamation, which became effective JanuaryRead MoreAnalyze the Ways in Which Controversy over the Extension of Slavery Into Western Territories Contributed to the Coming of the Civil War. Confine Your Answer to the Period 1845-1861.691 Words   |  3 Pagesslave states. As a result of the Mexican War, the U.S. men vast new land holdings in the West, fueling a debate between the North and South over the extensions of slavery into the West. This sectional strife over slavery’s extension was a major factor in the eventual commencement of the Civil War. Through accentuating divisions between the North and South over the control of Western lands, the debate over slavery’s extension clearly influenced the Civil War’s coming. After the U.S. secured